Thrombotic Microangiopathy (TMA):
Thrombotic Microangiopathy is a pathology that results in thrombosis in capillaries and arterioles due to endothelial injury. It may be seen in association with anemia, purpura, thrombocytopenia and renal failure.
Among the TMAs are Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS), atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (aHUS) and Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP). Treatment of the TMAs depends on the underlying condition so it is important to attempt to determine the cause of the TMA.
Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome(aHUS):
Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (aHUS) is characterized by acute renal failure, thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and occurs with an estimated incidence of 2 per 1,000,000 in the USA. Disease pathogenesis is related to dysregulation of the alternative pathway (AP) of the complement cascade at the level of the cell membrane secondary to mutations in a number of complement genes.
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura(TTP):
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) is a rare disorder of the blood-coagulation system that causes extensive microscopic clots (thrombi) to form in small blood vessels throughout the body. TTP is caused by spontaneous aggregation of platelets and activation of coagulation in these vessels.